3. The Dietetics and Food
1. n-3 fatty acid and Health
2. The Dietary Fiber and Health
3. The Relation Between the Trace Elements and Various Diseases.

Recently, "Healthy Food" is in fashion. Various types of nutritive substances and chemical elements influence on metabolism and healing process of human body though they are very small quantity. This time, by obtaining the cooperation of Dr. Yoshiaki Tanaka, a lecturer of Dept. of pediatric surgery, Kurume university school of medicine, the topics of recent dietetics are introduced in this home page.

The data from Dr. Tanaka are based on the expert knowledge, so the description in this page is simplified in order that everyone can understand, but a person who wants to know in detail can get the
PDF file here (written in Japanese) which Dr. Tanaka announced on the education lecture at the 49th meeting of the Dietetics for Improvement Society of Japan held in November 2002 in Okinawa.
  Dr.Tanaka's paper (Summary written in Japanese)
The nutritional control which subject is to increase patients' immunity supplementing special nutrients is being watched now. There are some special nutrients of which effectiveness are reported, and they are (1)n-3-fatty-acid group which has the anti-inflammatory action and anti-coagulant action etc, (2)the dietary fiber which is effective for improvement of constipation, for the supplementary therapy for diabetes and hyperlipidemia etc, and for the increase of immunity in human body by improving the balance of the intestinal bacterial flora etc, (3)arginine and nucleic acid which strengthen immunity, and glutamine which is the energy source for the mucous membrane of small intestine and some immunocytes, and glutamine assists to repair damaged mucous membrane of small intestine and prevents the membrane from bacterial infection, (4)the trace elements as Zinc, Copper, Mangane and Selenium etc which are necessary to remove the free-radical, (5)Catechin(polyphenol) and Vitamin C and Vitamin E which have direct anti-oxidation action, and(6) growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) which are one of the growth factor of the intestine etc.

※ The free radical (Supplementary explanation)
There is a free radical theory;
The oxygen free radical which appears during the metabolic process oxidizes protein and DNA etc and gives the irreversible damages to them and so aging would occur in consequence.
Food contains the free radical, while some free radical grows in human body. They would be one of the cause of arterial sclerosis bringing about the oxidation reaction of lipid which consists of cell membrane. Also, the reaction of the free radical with DNA can be a cause of cancer. Some enzyme in human body can decompose some free radicals after trapping them, and some materials in food can make them be harmless reacting these free radicals. For example, the polyphenol which is contained in grapes and wine can inactivate these harmful free radicals. The polyphenol is seen in plant as catechin, flavonoid and tannin etc. These materials are well known as the antioxidant which can trap the free radicals chemically. Red wine and chocolate are very popular as healthy food which are effective to prevent arteriosclerosis and cancers, because the seed and pericarp of grapes, and cacao beans contain a many polyphenol and they have the inhibitory action to the oxidation of cholesterol and to some enzymes being related with carcinogenesis.

The theme of this page is the relation between the clinical effect and n-3 fatty acid, dietary fibers and trace elements.

1. n-3 fatty acid and Health
The n-3 fatty acid group (oleic acid) and diseases

a. Anti-inflammatory action
An epidemiological research shows that morbidity of cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction and angina pectoris, and allergic diseases etc is small in the Innuits who take a plenty of fish oil which are rich in n-3 fatty acid group, and this fact has attracted a great deal of researchers' and public attention.
About the metabolism of fatty acid, linoleic acid of n-6 fatty acid group brings some metabolic products such as leukotriene(LT)-4 group, prostaglandin(PG)-2 group and thromboxane(TX)-A2 etc through arachidonic acid. Excessive taking of n-6 fatty acid group brings various disorders to the living body such as excessive inflammatory reaction and the obstruction of arterioles, and they can be one of the cause of serious obstructive diseases such as cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction etc in consequence. However, some metabolic products of n-3 fatty acid group and alfa-linoleic acid block the metabolic reaction of n-6 fatty acid group competitively, and they suppress the inflammatory reaction and so production of free radicals would be suppressed in consequence.

b. Immunity control action
Excessive taking of n-6 fatty acid group restrains the proliferation of the immunocytes, and n-3 fatty acid group invigorates the cellular immunity in addition to the anti-inflammatory action mentioned above. On the other hand, n-6 fatty acid group has activating action to leukocytes, so it is thought to be important that immunity control of living body can work well under the condition with good balance of n-3 fatty acid group and n-6 fatty acid group. There is a report that increase of taking alfa-linoleic acid as n-3 fatty acid and decrease of linolic acid as n-6 fatty acid at the same time in cases with allergic diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases, inflammatory intestinal diseases and cerebral infarction etc. at the practical treatment has brought good therapeutic result. There is another report that administration of n-3 fatty acid to the patients with myocardial infarction, angina, renal disorders and autoimmune diseases had brought good effectiveness such as decrease of mortality rate and recurrence rate, improvement of clinical and examination data, reduction of days of hospital treatment, and reduction of dose of medication etc.

It is important in the alimentation therapy to keep the allergic reaction of living body be low, and the latest nutritional requirement in Japanese is recommended to be 4 as n-3/n-6 ratio. For example, beefsteak plant oil (slightly expensive than other oil), olive oil and sesame-seed oil have good n-3/n-6 ratio.

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2. The Dietary Fiber and Health
In a case of fasting for long by drip infusion therapy including IVH, and in a case under excessive stress by operation and serious injury, the mucous membrane of intestine doesn't work and becomes atrophic. The intestine is one of the immunity organ which occupies about 50% of lymph-system of whole body, and the atrophy of the intestinal mucous membrane breaks preventive function of the intestine due to reduction of intestinal immunity. The enteral nutrition using liquid food pouring into the intestine directly by tube is more natural and physiological than drip infusion therapy, but liquid food without any dietary fiber doesn't stimulate the intestine well and reduction of the intestinal immunity will occur if this therapy is continued. Therefore, the dietary fiber is being watched as special nutritional material.There are two types of dietary fiber, one is water-soluble fiber and the other is insoluble fiber. The insoluble dietary fiber increases the amount of feces and activates intestinal function, and then constipation will improve. Also it increases intestinal peristalsis and contact duration to the carcinogenic substance produced in the intestine will shorten, so the incidence of cancer will decrease. While, water-soluble dietary fiber absorbs cholesterol and sugariness, so it is applied to the treatment for cases with diabetes, hyperlipidemia and cardiac diseases etc. The oligosaccharides, one of water-soluble dietary fiber, is activated directly by Lactobacillus bifidus and helps to suppress bad Enterobacteriaceae by good Enterobacteriaceae in intestinal bacterial flora of Lactobacillus bifidus dominant. Then reinforcement of anti-inflammatory action and suppress the formation of carcinogenic materials by the mechanism mentioned above will help to keep living body healthy.

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3. The Relation Between the Trace Elements and Various Diseases.
a. Disorders of the internal organs and the trace elements
The active oxygen is formed from leukocytes etc in human body, and it is necessary to for bactericidal action and proteolytic reaction etc. But excessive amount of active oxygen will peroxidate lipid of human body by its high reactivity (lipid peroxidation) and give tissue damages. It will be one of the cause of aging, cancer, arteriosclerosis, hepatic disorders (becoming chronic state, carcinogenesis, alcoholic hepatitis and fatty liver etc, almost all hepatic disorders), diabetes, leukemia, pulmonary emphysema and allergic diseases. For example, deterioration of skin condition in a case with allergic diseases as atopic state by lowering of skin moisture, and atherosclerosis of vessels etc are seen practically.
The active oxygen produces other free radicals in living body. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is important to eliminate the active oxygen in human body. Some metals as Copper, Zinc and Mangane etc combine with the active part of this SOD, and SOD decomposes the active oxygen by help of Iron and Selenium. SOD density is the highest in liver, and SOD combined with Copper and Zinc exists much in red blood cells. Higher SOD density in human body is, much longer a person can live. In cases of deficiency diseases of these trace elements as Copper, Zinc and Selenium etc, the activity of SOD and other enzymes would drop, also the production of enzyme itself would reduce under poor nutritive condition, so it will be insufficient to delete the active oxygen. Under the condition like this, the active oxygen combines other materials and produces other radicals, and they will be causes of organs disorders. Human body has no enzyme to exterminate there free radicals, so taking anti-oxydation materials as Vitamine C and E, catechin and grape seed polyphenol is important for prevention of oxidation stress.
The trace elements are expected to increase anti-oxidation action of living body, and so they are important to prevent and cure diseases.

b. Protein metabolism and the trace elements
Zinc takes an important role for protein metabolism by binding the enzyme which is indispensable for protein synthesis and nucleic acid like DNA etc. Copper take an important role for wound healing as well as the epithelium formation and collagen formation by Zinc. Seventy percent of Iron in adult human body is working as the functional iron in blood, and remaining iron is stored as deposit iron in the liver. The functional iron is one of the component of hemoglobin in red blood cell, and take an important role to transport oxygen.
Recent eating habits occur various adult diseases. Even in children, the same diseases are seen. If you have a well-balanced diet now, but you cannot take enough trace elements by present food. Then you may complain of general fatigue and no enough improvement of disease treated. You should chose well-balanced and effective supplement food now, and our clinic deal in a kind of supplemental food which Dr. Tanaka recommends. It is "TEZON" of TERUMO Inc.


TEZON includes well-balanced Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Selenium, Chromium and some vitamins. Its calorie is very low and it is only 15 kcal, so a patient with diabetes can take it. It will be effective as supplemental treatment on diabetes, liver diseases, allergic diseases and anemia etc without any side-effects.

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